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自驾游时要留意哪些征兆以防汽车故障?(下)

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很多人喜欢自驾游,所以大家也想要了解自驾过程中,在车辆发生故障前会有哪些征兆?如何预判自己驾驶的车辆是否需要维修?

通常我不建议驾驶车龄超过10年、行驶里程数超过20万公里的汽车出远门,不怕一万,就怕万一。汽车要保证在公路上安全驾驶,最基本的就是动力输出、前后指向、点火装置以及内部操控。这四大块任何一个地方出了故障,建议尽快最近找维修站做相应维修。

先说动力输出。常见的烧机油其实问题不大,对应的机油一般是随处可见的,即使为了以防万一,在后备箱放一桶机油也无妨。自己对动力输出的推背感要有一定的了解,即使在车身承载了3-5名乘客和行李的时候,如果感觉到加速不对劲,靠边停车,空档下踩油门观察排气管出气是否有浓密的黑烟。水泵、皮带等暴露在发动机外部的部件也容易受到环境影响而加速老化,这些部件的故障都会伴随着转速表或者不寻常的声音反馈到驾驶员的脑子里。

动力输出最怕的还是在行驶过程中变速箱出现问题,以及日常维护不到位或者变速箱部件老化引起的故障。这个没什么检查捷径,只有依靠日常对驾驶该车型变速箱的逻辑有一个比较深刻的理解,倘若发现当前转速和时速不对劲,而且处在相对平缓的道路上的时候,提了心眼儿。

前后指向这个比较容易检查,甚至出发前就应该检查好。无非就是前灯和后灯,让人坐在驾驶座上踩踩刹车打打灯,自己围着车走一圈就知道了。在夜晚驾驶过程中也很容易看出前灯的变化,后灯就算要坏也不可能所有灯一起坏,除非是中央的Switch出故障,现在较为新的车在启动的时候都会对电子系统做一次通电检查,如果Switch有故障仪表盘会有显示。

点火装置是比较容易在行驶过程中出现故障的,而且还神不知鬼不觉。特别是启动机和发电机,还有电瓶,这三个部件任一一处出现问题都会引起点火故障。打开车内阅读灯,观察灯芒的闪烁可以判断发电机和电瓶输出是否存在故障,而启动机的故障就不好判断了,不过一般出现故障了连启动都启动不了,没有随身携带接电线的话就认怂吧。出门前最好去附近修车场检测一次点火时候和运转时的电压和电流,确认无碍再出发。

内部操控我看来就是驾驶员对底盘的了解。比如长时间没做四轮定位导致的转向不对劲,热胎压的不足或者过饱和,再每一次的直行或者转向都可以感受出来。比如直行的时候放开方向盘是否出现比较严重的跑偏,和热车之后观察轮胎的饱和程度(承载情况下),连续三次同样的速度过同一个弯道走同一条线感受前悬挂的转向是否一致等。

至于引擎舱的冷却液、各种管道,肉眼看就好了。不过近10年的车好多了,仪表盘上各种指示灯,哪里坏了亮哪里。就跟哪里不会点哪里一样简单呢。

(来源:知乎,作者:往无)

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